What is Difference between Nickel-Iron Batteries and Lithium-ion Batteries?

Nickel iron battery and lithium-ion battery, have their own importance because of their use in many application. Both batteries have ability to recharge and use it again. You can read the comparison article below.

How Nickel Iron Battery works?

Nickle Iron battery is also known as NiFe battery or nickel metal hydride battery. It is made-up of two chemical compounds, first one is nickel and second one is iron. This battery is also known as Edison battery.

It has two electrodes, first electrode is composed of nickel and possess positive charge whereas second electrode is composed of iron and possess negative charge.

Both electrodes are positioned into container of potassium hydroxide for electrolyte, hence produce electricity.

These batteries are very stable and have long life cycle that’s why mostly it is recommended in many energy storage applications or projects.    

USE

These batteries are most commonly used in cars for starting the engine, used as electric ignition in generators and used in as source of energy with inverters to produce electricity.

Specification

Energy     =  19-25 Wh/Kg

Power      =  100 W/Kg

Efficiency = <65%

Formula   = (+ive) 2 NiO(OH) + 2 H2O + 2 e− ↔ 2 Ni(OH)2 + 2 OH−

                     (-ive) Fe + 2 OH− ↔ Fe(OH)2 + 2 e−

Lifespan

Nickel battery has 20% – 29% discharge rate so its mean it has only a lifespan of one year and five months if we do proper maintenance and care.

Maintenance

  • Always check the level of electrolyte water in it.
  • If the water level is low, fill it to the given level.
  • Don’t over charge or it may explode.

How Nickel Manganese Cobalt Battery works?

This battery is also known as NMC battery or lithium-ion battery.

This battery concept is related to metals who have potential of electrochemical. These metal have potential to lose their electrons that is why lithium is used in this battery.

Lithium is a high reactive metal. In NMC battery graphite is used as electrolyte process. Graphite possess a layered structure and lithium-ions are stored in these loosely bounded layers separately.

The electrolyte act as a wall between metal oxide and graphite and only lithium ion to pass through it.

When we charge this battery, electrons from lithium atoms of the metal oxide will be attracted towards positive terminal and lithium-ions which are positively charge will be attract towards negative terminal, these ions are trapped in space between graphite layers. When all the atoms fill the gaps of graphite sheet, it indicates that cell is fully charged.

And when we connect some appliance with the battery, electron goes through electrolyte process and produce electric current and battery will be discharge. Remember that graphite has only a role of store keeper in this process. It doesn’t reacts it’s only a storage medium.  

USE

These batteries are mostly used in mobiles and laptops due to its portability, in hybrid car as well as in fully electric powered vehicles like Tesla or BMW etc. Now a days it is commonly used in solar power backups at homes and workshops (solar lithium batteries).

Specification

Energy     =  100-250 Wh/Kg

Power      =  300-1500 W/Kg

Efficiency = 99%

Formula   = (Li+Mn3+Mn4+O4)

Lifespan

The estimated life of Li-ion battery is 2-3 years or it depend on its use, means how many time you charge or discharge it. Its approximately provide 350-500 charge cycles.

Maintenance

  • Check the charging status daily.
  • Check if battery is near to its estimated life.
  • Replace the battery in following condition:
  • If it takes long time for charge.
  • If battery status drops rapidly.

If battery is not in use, it should be charge 50%. If it has no charge in it, considered as damage. You have to replace it with new one.

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